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Sortino Ratio : Difference Between the Sortino and Sharpe Ratios?



Sortino ratio is a variant of the Sharpe ratio that uses the asset’s standard deviation of negative portfolio returns—downside deviation—rather than the total standard deviation of portfolio returns to distinguish damaging volatility from total overall volatility.

The Sortino ratio is calculated by subtracting the risk-free rate from the return on an asset or portfolio, then dividing the result by the asset’s downside deviation. Frank A. Sortino is the name of the ratio.

The Sortino ratio differs from the Sharpe ratio in that it only takes into account the standard deviation of the downside risk, rather than the total (upside + downside) risk.


Because the Sortino ratio only considers the negative departure of a portfolio’s returns from the mean, it is regarded to provide a more accurate picture of its risk-adjusted performance, as positive volatility is a benefit.

Investors, analysts, and portfolio managers can use the Sortino assess an investment’s return for a certain degree of unfavourable risk.

The Sortino Ratio and What It Can Tell You

Sortino RatioInvestors, analysts, and portfolio managers can use the Sortino ratio to assess an investment’s return for a certain degree of unfavourable risk.

This ratio avoids the difficulty of using total risk, or standard deviation, as a risk measure, which is significant because upside volatility is favourable to investors and isn’t a feature that most investors are concerned about.


An Example of Using the Sortino Ratio

A greater Sortino ratio outcome is better, just like a higher Sharpe ratio.

When comparing two similar investments, a rational investor would choose the one with the higher Sortino ratio since it indicates that the investment is receiving a higher return per unit of poor risk.

Assume Mutual Fund X has a 12-percent annualised return with a ten-percentage-point downside deviation.


Mutual Fund Z offers a ten percent annualised return and a seven percent downside deviation. 2.5 percent is the risk-free rate.

For both funds, the Sortino would be determined as follows:

Despite the fact that Mutual Fund X has a 2 percent higher annualised return than Mutual Fund Z, because to their downside deviations, Mutual Fund X is not earning that return as effectively as Mutual Fund Z.


Mutual Fund Z is the superior investment option based on this metric.

While the risk-free rate of return is commonly used in calculations, investors can also utilise expected return.

The investor should be constant in terms of the type of return in order to maintain the formulas correct.


What Is the Difference Between the Sortino and Sharpe Ratios?

By dividing excess return by the downside deviation rather than the overall standard deviation of a portfolio or asset, the Sortino improves on the Sharpe ratio by isolating downside or negative volatility from total volatility.

The Sharpe ratio penalises an investment for taking on too much risk, resulting in favourable returns for investors.

Choosing which ratio to utilise, however, is dependent on whether the investor wants to focus on total or standard deviation, or just downside deviation.


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Tata Consultancy Services: After Poor Q4 Earnings, Tcs Shares Continue To Decline; They Are Down Roughly 4%



Tcs is the leading company According to Venugopal Garre, MD at Sanford C Bernstein, in an interview with Business Standard, equity returns this year will be poor and may even be lower than fixed deposit rates.


“From a 12-month perspective, we have no opinion on Indian stocks because we generally anticipate a flat index. But, we had previously recommended underweight in the first three months of this year due to bad macroeconomic (macro) data points, high valuations, and rising rates “He regularly told the market.

He predicts a recovery in Indian equities, with the Nifty50 index going to an 18,000–18,500 level this quarter as a result of rates being closer to a peak, macroeconomic indicators being closer to a bottom, earnings remaining stable, and values having corrected from the top. According to him, much of this desire for a resurgence is tactical because “we see hazards capping the upside,” according to report.


The market expert anticipates significant volatility during the next 12 months; as a result, it added, periodic churn and assessment will be needed to provide higher results.

Yet because there won’t be as much directional support, it becomes more difficult. Garre believes there is an opportunity for a more significant market catch-up closer to the end of this year and the beginning of next, according to the research. According to Garre, by then the macros would have begun to stabilize, the world’s risks would have diminished, and there would be more clarity on interest rates.

While speaking about favorite industries, he claimed that it was difficult to pinpoint stocks because the majority still had valuations that were over the band.


“Because most calls are relative, it is necessary to evaluate growth, dangers to the downside, and valuations. From that vantage point, we see the financial sector to be appealing; as a contrarian choice, we have a slight overweight on information technology services. We have an excess of cement, real estate, and consumer electronics among the smaller industries. Consumer discretionary (apart from autos), consumer staples, commodities, industrials, and utilities are areas where we are underweight “He uttered a lie.

According to Garre, there is potential for some reversal in FII flow.

He does not anticipate significant enough inflows to raise the Nifty Index above 18,500. It matters how far the economy has recovered both domestically and internationally, he continued.


Investors, according to Warren Buffett, should evaluate a company’s competitive edge before making an investment.

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How to Know When Your Funds Are Available



This is the typical amount of time to ensure that the money you deposit into your account’s checking account is accessible to you. It’s not the only thing to consider. Depending on the kind of deposit you deposit, you might be able to access your cash in a matter of minutes, or be waiting longer than two days. 

It’s all about the individual. Therefore, prior to making any transfer or withdrawal you should know everything you can about your Bank’s policies on funds availability . If you don’t, you could be penalized with an unpleasant “insufficient funds” fee. Here’s a quick summary of the process of obtaining funds. Know about v5 hold.

What is bank funds availability?

check Your Funds Are Available

check Your Funds Are Available

Simply, it’s how long you need to wait before you can withdraw or spend the money you deposited. The federal government provides banks with guidelines on this period which banks employ them to develop their own policies on availability of funds.

Banks will provide you with their policy when you sign up for a checking account. It may seem small, but it’s still worth studying. If you’re not sure about certain things, don’t hesitate to inquire with your bank representative any questions. In this way, you’ll understand what the regulations are, so that you can better prepare the budget and complete transactions when the funds are available.


When can you anticipate the funds to be accessible?

It is based on the type of money you deposit to your account. There are several variables to consider.

Hours of operation

Most banking deposits will be processed during working days (Monday-Friday) and each bank has a cut-off time to ensure that deposits are valid for that day’s business. Reviewing the bank’s policies may be helpful as well or, better yet you can visit their website or contact them by phone for any inquiries.

Type of deposit

Direct deposits and cash are typically available on the same day. Most banks make checks available within a couple of days.


Sum of deposit

The larger deposits that exceed $5,000 generally take longer to be cleared. Your bank could even make a part of it available earlier.

History of a bank

If you’re a new client the bank may hold your account for longer than when you were a previous customer (at least initially). This is merely a security measure. It’s not hurt to inquire about the bank’s policies on availability of funds when you first open your account.

Why wouldn’t you get immediate access to your funds?

You earned it. It’s yours. So , why is there a wait? Banks hold money due to a number of reasons however none is designed to cause inconvenience.


A waiting time of a few days is common when you need to make your money available. It’s usually a result of money that is deposited into your account in the form of checks. This waiting time is for a reason to confirm the amount of money that was deposited. It may feel as a hassle however, it allows banks the chance to verify that everything is in order, which is beneficial for their customers as well.

If you’re ever unsure regarding whether your money is available make contact with your bank for an accurate picture. Being informed about the condition of your deposit straight from them can help you organize your budget and relax at ease. Peace of mind — it’s invaluable.

Two business days. This is the typical length of time to ensure that the money you deposit into your account’s checking account actually gets to you. It’s not the only thing to consider. Depending on the kind of deposit you deposit, you may be able to access your funds in a matter of minutes, or be waiting longer than two days.


It all depends on. Therefore, prior to making any transfer or withdrawal you should know everything you can about the bank’s policies regarding funds availability. In the event that you don’t, you could be hit with an unfun “insufficient funds” fee. This is a brief overview of how the availability of funds works.

What exactly is money availability?

Simplyput, it’s the time you have to be patient before you are able to take out or use the money that you have deposit. The federal government offers banks guidelines regarding this period and banks can employ them to develop their own policies on availability of funds.

Banks will provide you with their policy when you sign up for a checking account. It may seem small, but it’s still worth studying. If you’re not sure about the subject, don’t hesitate asking your banking representative for clarification. So, you’ll be aware of the rules so you’ll be able to better prepare your financial plan and complete transactions when funds are made available.

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Business and Finance

The Pendulum is Swinging Back to Employers



Despite the current economy’s problems, the pendulum is swinging back to employers. Wage growth is up, unemployment is down, and employees are not leaving their jobs in droves like in the past. The President’s economic policies, which include tax cuts, stimulus spending, and other measures, have been designed to create a more robust economy.

Pendulum is swinging back to employers: Wage growth is a “late-cycle indicator”

Pendulum is swinging back to employers

Despite the ongoing swooning of the Fed, the American worker is still seeing his or her share of the pie. The aforementioned recession proofed adage is apt. It’s a good thing that companies are putting their best foot forward by posting fewer jobs, and laying off less.

Not to mention slapping a plethora of bonuses on top of that. And while it’s still too early to call, this is a sign of things to come.


Of course, the old adage about the recession notwithstanding, the economy is currently in a state of flux. Luckily, it’s not a full blown recession, but rather a slow burn that is a little more than the average American would like to admit to.

The best part is, there’s nothing stopping companies from re-investing in the aforementioned economy if they so choose. With the right incentives,

companies will soon be reaping the benefits of their new found prosperity. Of course, not all companies are created equal. The ones that stand out are the ones that take the time to listen to their employees.


Pendulum is swinging back to employers: Labor force participation rate dropped again in July to 62.1 percent

Despite strong job creation, the labor force participation rate decreased by 0.1 percentage point to 62.1 percent in July. The participation rate was down from 63.4 percent in February and April 2020. This was a decline that was most noticeable among younger workers.

Despite a significant drop in the labor force participation rate, the unemployment rate edged down to 3.5 percent. It is still a long way from its pre-pandemic level of 63.4 percent.

Despite the drop in the labor force participation rate, the employment-to-population ratio remains below the value for February 2020.


The decline in the labor force participation rate is partly due to a drop in participation among 55-64 year olds. This age group has been declining for some time, and it raised concerns about an increase in early retirement.

Another factor depressing labor force participation was caregiving. There were 6.13 million workers not in the labor force because they were taking care of a child who was not in daycare. Caregiving accounted for 1.2 percentage points of the drop in the labor force participation rate.

Pendulum is swinging back to employers: Fewer employees are leaving their jobs without a new job

Compared to the past, fewer employees are quitting their jobs without a new job lined up. This is a good thing for workers and employers alike. In fact, more and more workers are taking the time to start their own companies.


The number of people leaving their jobs without a new one lined up is down by a whopping two million. However, the number of job openings remains near a record high, if the latest job report is any indication.

Adding to the numbers is the fact that the Federal Reserve is working to slow the economy down, and more employers are putting a squeeze on hiring.

The Great Resignation has given workers a chance to try out the old adage about not working for free. Many of them are opting to forgo their desk jobs for more flexible schedules and better benefits. Those seeking to get back to work are also taking the time to read up on the latest and greatest in workplace technology.


Pendulum is swinging back to employers: President Biden swings pendulum in employee-friendly direction

  • During the presidential campaign, President-elect Joe Biden promised to be the most employee-friendly president in history. He filled his transition team with labor-friendly lawyers and leaders. He also nominated Martin J. Walsh, a former union official, to serve as secretary of labor.
  • He has also made several changes to federal agencies and the federal minimum wage. He has rescinded a dozen guidance memoranda issued by his predecessor. These memoranda had been used to promote a stricter neutrality agreement standard.
  • President-elect Biden has also made a commitment to reverse the Trump administration’s actions on climate change and environmental issues.
  • His administration will likely increase civil enforcement of environmental laws and roll back the Trump administration’s environmental policies.
  • The President-elect has also promised to return to the Paris Climate Agreement. He has made a commitment to legalize 11 million unauthorized immigrants.
  • He has also promised to be the most pro-union president. The president-elect has begun to act immediately to implement these promises.

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